Types of poetic art

Digital poetry

Digital poetry is the most modern form of poetic art. Digital poetry uses the computer to produce artistic works. Some examples of digital poetry uses videos, digital sounds, etc

Visual poetry/ concrete poetry

Visual poetry uses the visual arrangement of text, images and symbols to convey the effect of poetic works. In visual poetry, the distinction between the art and text is not clear. Concrete poetry is poetry composed of purely typographic elements.

Fluxus poetry/Intermedia

Fluxism is taken from the latin word ‘flux’ meaning to flow is believed to have originate from the experimental music in the 1950s and 1960s.

Intermedia was a concept employed in the mid-1960s to describe the merging between artistic disciplines that were popular in the 1960s such as theatre and painting, drawing and poetry. These can be described as Intermedia. Intermedia is taught independently from fine art courses in universities.


Futurism was a dramatic art movement which began in the early twenty-first century, headed by the Italian poet Filippo Tommaso Marinetti in 1909 with the publication of the Manifesto of futurism on the front page of Paris newspaper Le Figaro. As an art form, futurism due upon elements of Divisionism and cubism.

The name futurism was given because the art movement emphasized themes associated with concepts of future including speed, technology, youth and violence and objects such as cars, aeroplanes basically modern technology.

Futurism is believed to have influenced other art movements including Surrealism, Dada, art deco, constructivism. During these periods, other art movements were taking place in Europe, notably Russia and France. Futurist artist were fascists.

Poetry presented as Film

Poetry in Motion is a documentary film produced in 1982, that explores the lives of some North American poets and their poetry. Poetry is presented as sound, music and drama. The clip below is the poem “The Four Horsemen’s”, sound poetry by poetry group Four Horsemen.

For Colored Girls Who Have Considered Suicide/ When the Rainbow Is Enuf is originally a stage play by Ntozake Shange, about the problems that women (of color) face in life. The play has a collection of twenty poems which describes the thoughts of the main female characters. The play was recently adapted by Tyler Perry into a blockbuster movie, the storyline has been adapted to fit a modern culture but the characters are the same. What I love about both the old and new version of the plot is that it uses dialogue, the character speaking the poem is talking to herself, her colleagues and the audience too. It is a very engaging play/film with a powerful storyline.

This is one of the poetic scenes from the original play by Ntozake Shange, titled “Somebody almost walked off wid all ma stuff” Enjoy!


Poets and Painters Exhibitions

The number of public shows and exhibitions based on poetry and art shows that it is still developing and has admirers today. I researched exhibitions that showcase works on both poetry and art.

Tibor de Nacy Gallery, Painters and Poets is an annual exhibition which has been running for 60 years since after the second world war. It is based in New York and features works from John Ashberry, Joe Brainard, Fairfield Porter and more.

Les Orientales is an exhibition based in Paris, showing at the Maison de Victor Hugo. Victor Hugo published a collection of poems, Les Orientales, which paints an imaginary oriental world. The piece became a source of inspiration in the works of Romanticists Gericault, Girodet, Boulanger and Delacroix.

The “Poetry on Canvas” exhibition by Aslam Kamal opened recently(October 2011) in Islamabad, Pakistan. Aslam Kamal is a calligraphist, painter, illustrator and designer. Some of the pieces showcased in the Poetry on Canvas exhibtion will include the illustrators he painted based on poets Allama Iqbal and Faiz. Kamal said about Faiz ” Faiz is the poet, he writes poetry about beauty. I’m his rival and I paint the beauty he depicts”. This statement clearly shows the influence of poetry on an artist. Kamal first pieces on Faiz’s poetry was first debut in 1983, twenty-eight years ago. Today, some of the paintings depict Faiz in the process of thinking up poetry.

‘Surrealism: The Poetry of Dreams’ an exhibition features surrealists collections from Europe. It is based on the movement which began in the 1920s and was founded by André Breton. The exhibition presents more than 180 works by 56 artists, including paintings, sculptures, ‘surrealist objects’, films, photographs, drawings and collages. The exhibition is mainly held in Paris, it explores the historical overview of the artistic movement, from the evolution of Dada experiments in painting to modern works of art.

The Lure of Painted Art exhibition took place at the Cleveland Musuem of Art, in Cleveland – America. The exhibition aims to demonstrate how Chinese literacy traditions have been echoed in Japan and Korea throughout the 1,000 years. The large exhibition has 100 works on Japanese and Korean painting, ceramics and calligraphy.

The Poetry of Drawing exhibition showcases a collection of Pre-Raphaelite drawings and watercolours. The Pre-Raphaelite brotherhood was a radical group of young artists originated in Birmingham, England were a group of radical young artists led by Rossetti, Millais and Holman Hunt, who banded together in the mid 19th century and revolutionised British art. They challenged the art of their day and helped shape later movements such as Aestheticism, Symbolism and Art Nouveau. This year the exhibition organised by Birmingham Museums & Art Gallery was on tour.

The `Poetry Beyond Text: Vision, Text and Cognition’ is a symposium and exhibition project funded by the Arts & Humanities Research Council at the University of Dundee. It has been running since 2009, led by Professor Andrew Michael Roberts of the School of Humanities at the University of Dundee. The project has produced an exhibition of visual-poetic art works, including concrete poetry, sculptural poetic artefacts, artists’ books, poetic prints, poem-photography, text film and digital poetry.

Dissertation Question

Key words related to the question

  • Internet economies;
  • E-commerce;
  • dot-com companies;
  • venture capitalists;
  • IPOs;
  • e-marketing;
  • gobal village;
  • e-retailing;
  • advertising;
  • brick and mortar companies/traditional companies
  • information revolution
  • global economies
Possible questions
Discuss why global connectivity is important in new and current companies.
Describe how the Internet has made the world smalller for Internet firms
Explain the issues that surround business on the Internet and how they impact on society

The History of Poetry and Art

A Brief History of Poetry

Poetry as an art form existed before literacy. Some of the earliest poem were recited orally or sung as songs. The earliest poem is believed to be the Epic of Gilgamesh which originated from Iraq or Mesopotamia from the 4th Millenium BC. Poems were used as a way of remembering history, stories, genealogy and law. Poetry is closely related to musical traditions, which is mostly attributed to religious movements. The Homeric and Hesiodic epics( the earliest surviving peoms in European tradition)

Ancient thinkers sought to determine what makes poetry different from other art forms and to distinguish between good poetry and bad poetry, the strudy of poetry is called ‘poetics’ or the aesthetics of poetry. Poetry has been used differently in many cultures through time, some ancient societies in China developed Shi Jing, one of the five classics of Confucianism has ritual as well as poetic elements. Aestthetics have struggled to classify the different genres of poetry because it is very broad.

As an art form, Poetics has different genres and forms, it can be classified based on their purpose and structure. For instance, the Epic of Gilgamesh describes a story so it will be lengthy and narrative. Sonnets, rhymes and limericks are more popular forms of poetry, rhymes are more popular now because of nursery rhymes and limericks add some humour. William Shakespeare’s Sonnet 130 is a very popular sonnet which conveys strong meanings behind descriptive texts.

The form of poetry i am researching is poetry that has acccompanied art, it has been used in union together in the past  because painters and illustrators draw inspiration from poetry and vice versa, especially in the 18th and 19th centuries. Between 1760 and 1900, there had been around 2,300 paintings based on William Shakespeare plays alone. This 2,300 are only one-fifth of the 11, 500 paintings based on subjects and scenes from literature in England only. This figures shows that the huge influence that authors and artists had on each other.

From this point, I will discuss a movement that was very heavily based on art and poetry during the mid-1800s among three main countries.

A history of art

Art and poetry as a art form have interwovened into each other for many centuries. Art movements such as symbolism, realism, Impressionism and all the art forms that preceded afterwards. Symbolism however is thought to define the movement of art and poetry. Symbolism was an art movement of French, Russian and Belgian origin in poetry and art, it can be traced back to the art of Gustave Moreau in the 1850s and the poetry of Charles Baudelaire in the 1860s.

2.1 The history of Chocolate

The history of chocolate started in the hot equatorial regions of south and central regions and amazon regions. It was believed to have been discovered by monkeys before humans learned from the example of the monkeys. The cacao fruit, not chocolate was first discovered and became a delicacy in among many tribes, spanning from the pre-columbian experience (1200 b.c to 1492 a.d)

During this period, the cacao plant and fruit were eaten as raw food. The beans were later discovered for medicinal uses, used as gifts(because they were highly treasured) among nobles and kings, food, porridges, healthy drinks and bitter drinks, a source of power and conflict.

By the turn of the century, chocolate was soon to be discovered by Europeans. Around 1519, Hernan Cortes, one of the conquistadors reported the chocolate drink to the king of Spain at that time, King Carlos the First. After coming to Mexico, they witnessed the king’s 50 a day chocolate drinking habit, the cacao bean storehouses and the value of cacao beans as a currency.

The Spanish shortly colonised many of the South and Central American regions, and took chocolate drink back to Spain, adding sugar to the original recipe. The Spanish also took cacao beans the new islands and countries discovered, and many parts of the New World, they were cacao plantains. Between the 16th to 17th centuries, chocolate had spread to Europe, from Spain to France, then France to other parts. The french added sugar, milk and egg yolk and different flavours to the drinking chocolate.

Chocolate was praised for the medicinal properties it was thought of as a cure-all for all types of illnesses. The early european really adapted chocolate to their taste, from the way it was prepared and the ingredients used.

As the popularity of chocolate increased it fell under religious scrutiny. The catholics debated whether its comsumption was right during fasts. The protestants were offended by chocolate drinking that when they settled in Plymouth, North America they banned it. The socialisation in the chocolate house next door was irritating so they called it ‘devil’s food’. During this entire period, chocolate was consumed by the rich and noble, and it took a complicate process to make fresh hot chocolate.

The coming of the next century brought with it the industrial revolution which made the complete development of cacao bean to hot chocolate liquor to chocolate bar. The chocolate bar would not have existed without the process of extracting cacao butter from the liquor. Before his intervention, the cacao butter would rise to the top and have to be boiled off but his invention of the hydraulic press, meant that cocoa butter and cocoa butter could be extracted from the chocolate liquor. The dutch chemist invented the process of dutching. Thanks to Conrad Van Horten, cocoa powder could be boxed up and sold as a commercial product on a mass scale. By 1830, Van Horten had patented a process for chocolate production, and chocolate could be enjoyed by everyone.

Up until the end of the 1840s, chocolate bars had to be dissolved in water or milk before they could be eaten. In 1847, Joseph Fry a chocolate maker from a long line of English chocolate makers who were Quakers found out that powered cocoa and cocoa butter made a mixture that holds well together, the mixture was moulded into bars and became solid chocolate. Fry called his discovery “Chocolate Delicieux a Manger”. The Frys of Bristol soon became the largest manufacturer of chocolate in the world.

2.2 The process of Chocolate-making

Making chocolate – From Cocoa Bean to Chocolate

  • Cocoa beans comes from the fruit of the cocoa/cacao tree called Cocoa, the fruits are called cocoa pods.
  • After Cocoa is ripe, most cocoas are about the size of a small pineapple and yellow in colour. The beans are taken out from inside the fruit.
  • The beans are fermented for a few days. Then dried in the sun, till they are dry and hard. If the beans are to be exported to chocolate makers, this is the last stage of production of home soil.
  • The beans are roasted at high temperatures to bring out the flavour.
  • The beans are winnowed, which takes out the cocoa bean from its shell. Beans can be winnowed by cracking them. The bits needed are called nibs
  • The nibs are blended to produce a liquid called the chocolate liquor, which is not alcoholic
  • The chocolate liquor now goes in a couple of directions, the liquor is pressed to extract the cocoa butter(contains most of the fat), the solid mass remaining is known as cocoa powder.
  • The cocoa butter is needed for the process of chocolate making. The chocolate liquor is also needed to make the chocolate
  • Ingredients such as milk and sugar, chocolate liquor and plant extracts such as vanilla are mixed together until the flavours are well combined.
  • Machine called conchers are used to massage the chocolate ingredients and smooth it out. It may take up to 6 days.
  • The last stage is called tempering ‘a process where the chocolate is slowly heated, and slowly cooled’ allowing the cocoa butter molecules to solidify. This makes the chocolate harden properly
  • The chocolate mixture can be poured into moulds and then cooled off in a cooling chamber.

Research the question

As the presentation shows one of my inspirations is Poetry, I like the way it is used to convey thoughts, experiences and feelings, and i believe that in many ways it has a close relationship to art, whether paintings, drawings, photography or digital art. I have been inspired by this presentation which uses beautiful photographs of natural landscapes to portray the feelings in this inspirational poem.

Link: http://www.theinterviewwithgod.com/

This presentation shows the beauty of art and poetry, and I have chosen to research poetry and art and find out how it has been used together to create meaning in messages. This is my question:
Based on the works of poetic artists, explain how art reflects the meaning and influences behind the creative piece.

1.1 An Overview of my project

Redesign and promote the Golden Tree chocolate brand for the UK market

As a major project in response to the assignment brief, my objective is to re-brand and promote the Golden Tree Chocolate varieties, this brand is well-known and respected in Ghana because it is made in Ghana and a good source of income for local farmers who do not gain from the profits of big chocolate companies. Golden Tree de luxe chocolate bars are produced by the Cocoa Processing Company(CPC). The reason why I have chosen these products for my project is because one of my interests is Product design, i view this project as the best challenge because I love the taste of this chocolate. It is well-known in Ghana and I want to push this product into the UK market. For this project, I will only be assuming that i was working with CPC to redesign their chocolate packaging.

The Cocoa Processing Company produces other cocoa based products such as milk chocolate spread, instant drinking chocolates, cocoa powder, dark chocolate for baking and groundnut covered chocolate.I will not be promoting any of these products, I have chosen to focus on their variety of chocolate bars(Golden Tree De Luxe) because of the unique taste and texture of these bars, which is very different from chocolate bars in the UK and everywhere else in the world.

The UK’s confectionery market is very rich and competitive, worth around £5 billion. I have identified some strong points which I can use to promote GoldenTree chocolate to become a strong selling brand in the UK and in Ghana.

These are the seven varieties of Golden Tree chocolates:

  • Tetteh Quarshie Bar
  • Kingsbite
  • Oranco Bar
  • Akuafo
  • Portem Nut
  • Portem Pride
  • Coffeechoc

I will redesign the packaging of all seven chocolate varieties and will be making some designs for an advertising campaign.

Profile of Golden Tree chocolate

2.4 Divine Chocolate Limited

The Divine Company Ltd. logo

I have chosen to research the Divine chocolate company because its cause is steeply rooted in Ghanaian cocoa. Although, Divine chocolate is a UK based chocolate company, it also have links with the union of cocoa farmers in Ghana which makes them 45% owners in the company. It has a fair cause in selling its chocolate, and I want to promote Golden Tree chocolate  like Divine Chocolate did, as they ventured into the UK market.

The Timeline of Divine Chocolate

The history of Divine Chocolate goes back to 1997, when the Kuapa Kokoo(the co-operative union of Ghanaian Cocoa farmers)  joined with The Body Shop and an NGO called Twin Trading to set up The Day Chocolate Company. With the help of Comic Relief and Christian Aid, The Day Chocolate Company was set up with the intention of making Ghana cocoa and Fairtrade chocolate recognised in the UK market. For this timeline, I will only be highlighting the parts of their history which involves the promoting of their Divine products.

1997 – The Day Chocolate Company is set up by Kuapa Kokoo with the help of the Twin Trading and The Body Shop

October 1998 – Divine Fairtrade milk chocolate was launched into the UK confectionery Market in October, it is the first farmer-owned Fairtrade chocolate bar.

December 1998 – The Milk Chocolate bar reaches the supermarket shelves.

March 1999 – Divine’s first TV advertisement is aired, starring Ben Elton.

November 1999 – Christian Aid Network launch a ‘Stock the Choc’ to get Divine chocolate stocked in a major supermarket.

October 2000 – Dubble, crunchy Fairtrade chocolate bar was created out of children’s competition.

March 2005 – Divine launches its first national advertising campaign.

January 2007 – The Day Chocolate Company changes its name to Divine Chocolate Limited.

February 2007 – Divine chocolate is launched in the United States.

Group Research and Presentation: The future of a chosen media industry

The first assignment set was to make a presentation based on the future of a chosen media industry. In groups of mainly 3’s, students with similar interests and career aspirations chose to research specific areas under our industries. My group chose graphic design as our main topic, and under this discipline we chose to research how graphic design as been affected by digitalization or computer software. Using the buzzword “digital design”, the findings related to how graphic designers will have to keep track of modern software and tools that our increasing done on the computer rather than manually. The new wacom inkling is a digital sketchbook tablet which means that illustrators experimenting on characters don’t have to keep drawing on sketchbook before transferring the final product onto the computer for editing. In general, graphic design is heading towards a digital future, and design pieces don’t have to be complex but reflective and meaningful. The history behind graphic design can be traced back to the printing press and the art of typography. Presently, digital design is important in advertising and marketing, web design, print media and television and is becoming a skill in high demand.

Another group researched on future employment in graphic design industry. It was very informative showing the current trends in employment, a high percentage of people working in companies only stay for 2 to 3 years.